An excerpt from Cybersecurity and Cyberwar: What Everyone Needs to Know by P.W. Singer and Allan Friedman
For a few hours in February 2008, Pakistan held hostage all the world’s cute cat videos.
The situation came about when the Pakistani government, in an attempt to prevent its own citizens from accessing what it decided was offensive content, ordered Pakistan Telecom to block access to the video-sharing website YouTube. To do so, Pakistan Telecom falsely informed its customers’ computers that the most direct route to YouTube was through Pakistan Telecom and then prevented Pakistani users from reaching the genuine YouTube site. Unfortunately, the company’s network shared this false claim of identity beyond its own network, and the false news of the most direct way to YouTube spread across the Internet’s underlying mechanisms. Soon over two-thirds of all the world’s Internet users were being misdirected to the fake YouTube location, which, in turn, overwhelmed Pakistan Telecom’s own network.
The effects were temporary, but the incident underscores the importance of knowing how the Internet works. The best way to gain this understanding is to walk through how information gets from one place to another in the virtual world. It’s a bit complex, but we’ll do our best to make it easy.
Suppose you wanted to visit the informative and—dare we say—entertaining website of the Brookings Institution, the think tank where we work. In essence, you have asked your device to talk to a computer controlled by Brookings in Washington, DC. Your machine must learn where that computer is and establish a connection to enable communication.
The first thing your computer needs to know is how to find the servers that host the Brookings web page. To do that, it will use the Internet Protocol (IP) number that serves as the address for endpoints on the Internet. Your machine was most likely automatically assigned an IP address by your Internet service provider or whatever network you are using. It also knows the address of its router, or the path to the broader Internet. Finally, your computer knows the address of a Domain Name System server.
The Domain Name System, or DNS, is the protocol and infrastructure through which computers connect domain names (human memorable names like Brookings.edu) to their corresponding IP addresses (machine data like 184.108.40.206). The DNS is global and decentralized. Its architecture can be thought of as a tree. The “root” of the tree serves as the orientation point for the Domain Name System. Above that are the top-level domains. These are the country codes such as .uk, as well as other domains like .com and .net. Each of these top-level domains is then subdivided. Many countries have specific second-level domains, such as co.uk and ac.uk, to denote business and academic institutions, respectively.
Entry into the club of top-level domains is controlled internationally through the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN), a private, nonprofi t organization created in 1998 to run the various Internet administration and operations tasks that had previously been performed by US government organizations.
Each top-level domain is run by a registry that sets its own internal policies about domains. Organizations, such as Brookings or Apple or the US Department of State, acquire their domains through intermediaries called registrars. These registrars coordinate with each other to ensure the domain names in each top-level domain remain unique. In turn, each domain manages its own subdomains, such as mail.yahoo.com.
To reach the Brookings domain, your computer will query the DNS system through a series of resolvers. The basic idea is to go up the levels of the tree. Starting with the root, it will be pointed to the record for .edu, which is managed by Educause. Educause is the organization of some 2,000 educational institutions that maintains the list of every domain registered in .edu. From this list, your computer will then learn the specific IP address of Brookings’s internal name server. This will allow it to address specific queries about content or applications from inside the Brookings domain. Then, the Brookings name server will direct your computer to the specific content it is looking for, by returning the IP address of the machine that hosts it.
The Pakistan example shows what happens when that trust is abused. The government censors “broke the Internet” by falsely claiming to have direct access to the IP address that serves YouTube. This was a narrow, local, politically motivated announcement. But because of how the Internet works, soon every ISP in Asia was trying to route all their YouTube traffic to Pakistan, solely because they believed it was closer than the real intended destination. The models they were building were based on false information. As more networks did this, their neighbors also came to believe that YouTube was the Pakistani IP address. The whole mess wasn’t resolved until Google engineers advertised the correct routes aggressively across the network.
In sum, understanding the Internet’s basic decentralized architecture provides two insights for cybersecurity. It offers an appreciation of how the Internet functions without top-down coordination. But it also shows the importance of the Internet’s users and gatekeepers behaving properly, and how certain built-in choke points can create great vulnerabilities if they don’t.
P.W. Singer is Director of the Center for 21st Century Security and Intelligence at the Brookings Institution. Allan Friedman is a Visiting Scholar at the Cyber Security Policy Research Institute, School of Engineering and Applied Sciences at George Washington University. Together they are the authors of Cybersecurity and Cyberwar: What Everyone Needs to Know.
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